Combination of xanthohumol and phenethyl isothiocyanate inhibits NF-κB and activates Nrf2 in pancreatic cancer cells.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2020 Feb 15:104799. Epub 2020 Feb 15. PMID: 32070777
Phytochemicals such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), indole-3-carbinol (I3C), xanthohumol (XAN), and resveratrol (RES) have been shown to target signaling pathways that are involved in the proliferation and survival of different pancreatic cancer (PC) cell lines. While the activity of these compounds alone was extensively studied, their combinations were never assessed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of PEITC, I3C, XAN, and RES and their combinations on the expression and activation of NF-κB and Nrf2 in human PC cell line PANC-1. The combination of XAN and PEITC was more efficient than the single compounds in reducing the binding of NF-κB p65 subunits by 47-60% and expression of p65 gene by 28-48%. The combination of XAN and PEITC also enhanced the activation and expression of Nrf2and subsequently the expression of GSTP, NQO1, and SOD genes which are controlled by this transcription factor. Modulation of the activity of NF-κB and Nrf2 by the combination of XAN and PEITC was found to lead to reduced proliferation of PANC-1 cells. These results suggest that the combination ofXAN and PEITC might be considered as a novel strategy for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of PC.