Identification of compounds in adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) seed hull extracts that inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 25 ;57(22):10651-7. PMID: 19886607
We investigated the effects of adlay seed hull (AH) extracts on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages. An AH ethanol extract (AHE) was partitioned into ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water fractions. Silica gel chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded 15 subfractions: AHE-Ea-A to AHE-Ea-O. Subfractions AHE-Ea-J, AHE-Ea-K, and AHE-Ea-M had anti-inflammatory activities, as they counteracted the increased cellular production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 induced by lipopolysaccharide by down-regulating inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 expression. Eriodictyol (1), the ceramide (2S,3S,4R)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanoyl-amino]-1,3,4-octadecanetriol (2), and p-coumaric acid (3) were found in the subfractions, and the first two compounds appeared to be primarily responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity. This is the first time that eriodictyol (1) and this ceramide (2) have been found in AH, and the anti-inflammatory properties of the AHE-Ea fraction can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of these two compounds.