Immunogenicity of New Primary Immunization Schedules With Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine for the Polio Endgame: A Review.
Clin Infect Dis. 2018 10 30 ;67(suppl_1):S35-S41. PMID: 30376081
Ananda S Bandyopadhyay
In May 2016, countries using oral polio vaccine for routine immunization switched from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent type 1 and 3 OPV (bOPV). This was done in order to reduce risks from type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and to introduce≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to mitigate post-switch loss of type 2 immunity. We conducted a literature review of studies that assessed humoral and intestinal immunogenicity induced by the newly recommended schedules. Differences in seroconversion rates were closely associated with both timing of first IPV administration and number of doses administered. All studies demonstrated high levels of immunity for types 1 and 3 regardless of immunization schedule. When administered late in the primary series, a second dose of IPV closed the humoral immunity gap against polio type2 associated with a single dose. IPV doses and administration schedules appear to have limited impact on type 2 excretion following challenge.