Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women.
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009 Dec 8. Epub 2009 Dec 8. PMID: 19996359
BACKGROUND: The effects of coffee and green, black and oolong teas and caffeine intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality have not been well defined in Asian countries. METHODS: To examine the relationship between consumption of these beverages and risk of mortality from CVD, we prospectively followed 76,979 individuals aged 40-79 y free of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and cancer at entry. Daily consumption of beverages was assessed by questionnaires. RESULTS: We documented 1362 deaths from strokes and 650 deaths from CHD after 1,010,787 person-years of follow-up. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval for those drinking 1-6 cups/wk, 1-2 cups/d and a per thousandPsi3 cups/d were 0.78 (0.50-1.20), 0.67 (0.47-0.96) and 0.45 (0.17-0.87) for strokes among men (p=0.009 for trend). Compared with non-drinkers of green tea, the multivariable HRs for those drinking 1-6 cups/wk, 1-2 cups/d, 3-5 cups/d and a per thousandPsi6 cups/d were 0.34 (0.06-1.75), 0.28 (0.07-1.11), 0.39 (0.18-0.85), and 0.42 (0.17-0.88) for CHD among women (p=0.038 for trend). As for oolong tea, the multivariable HRs of those drinking 1-6 cups/wk and a per thousandPsi1 cups/d were 1.00 (0.65-1.55) and 0.39 (0.17-0.88) for total CVD among men (p=0.049 for trend). Risk reduction for total CVD across categories of caffeine intake was most prominently observed in the second highest quintile with a 38% lower risk among men and 22% among women. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of coffee, green tea and oolong tea and total caffeine intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from CVD.