Continued alcohol misuse in human cirrhosis is associated with an impaired gut-liver axis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Continued Alcohol Misuse in Human Cirrhosis is Associated with an Impaired Gut-Liver Axis.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19. PMID: 28925102
Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis and alcohol can independently affect the gut-liver axis with systemic inflammation. However, their concurrent impact in humans is unclear.
METHODS: Our aim was to determine the effect of continued alcohol misuse on the gut-liver axis in cirrhotic patients. Age- and MELD-balanced cirrhotic patients who were currently drinking (Alc) or abstinent (NAlc) and healthy controls underwent serum and stool collection. A subset underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy for biopsies and duodenal fluid collection. The groups were compared regarding (i) inflammation/intestinal barrier: systemic tumor necrosis factor levels, intestinal inflammatory cytokine (duodenum, ileum, sigmoid), and ileal antimicrobial peptide expression; (ii) microbiota composition: 16SrRNA sequencing of duodenal, ileal, and colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota; and (iii) microbial functionality: duodenal fluid and fecal bile acid (BA) profile (conjugation and dehydroxylation status), intestinal BA transporter (ASBT, FXR, FGF-19, SHP) expression, and stool metabolomics using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Alc patients demonstrated a significant duodenal, ileal, and colonic mucosal and fecal dysbiosis, compared to NAlc and controls with lower autochthonous bacterial taxa. BA profile skewed toward a potentially toxic profile (higher secondary and glycine-conjugated BAs) in duodenal fluid and stool in Alc patients. Duodenal fluid demonstrated conjugated secondary BAs only in the Alc group. There was a greater expression of all ileal BA transporters in Alc patients. This group also showed higher endotoxemia, systemic and ileal inflammatory expression, and lower amino acid and bioenergetic-associated metabolites, without change in antimicrobial peptide expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite cirrhosis, continued alcohol misuse predisposes patients to widespread dysbiosis with alterations in microbial functionality such as a toxic BA profile, which can lead to intestinal and systemic inflammation.