Crocin can improve the synaptic loss and neuronal death. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Crocin attenuates the granular cells damages on the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus and frontal cortex in the rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
J Chem Neuroanat. 2020 Jun 10:101837. Epub 2020 Jun 10. PMID: 32534024
Amyloidβ-peptides (Aβ) are considered as a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can induce synaptic loss and apoptosis in brain regions, particularly in the cortex and the hippocampus. Evidence suggests that crocin, as the major component of saffron, can exhibit neuromodulatory effects in AD.However, specific data related to their efficacy to attenuate the synaptic loss and neuronal death in animal models of AD are limited. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of crocin in the CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and also in frontal cortex neurons employing a rat model of AD. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, sham, AD model, crocin, and AD model + crocin groups, with 8 rats per group. AD model was established by injecting Aβ1-42 into the frontal cortex rats, and thereafter the rats were administrated by crocin (30 mg/kg) for a duration of12-day. The number of live cells, neuronal arborization and apoptosis were measured using a Cresyl violet, Golgi-Cox and TUNEL staining, respectively. Results showed that, the number of live cells in the hippocampus pyramidal neurons in the CA3 and granular cells in the DG regions of the AD rats significantly decreased, which was significantly rescued by crocin. Compared with the control group, the axonal, spine and dendrites arborization in the frontal cortex and CA3 region of the AD model group significantly decreased. The crocin could significantly reverse this arborization loss in the AD rats (P < 0.05). The apoptotic cell number in the CA3 and DG regions in the AD model group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), while crocin significantly decreased the apoptotic cell number in the AD group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Crocin can improve the synaptic loss and neuronal death of the AD rats possibly by reducing the neuronal apoptosis.