Cumulative intake of artificially sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Aug 2. Epub 2019 Aug 2. PMID: 31374564
Kristin M Hirahatake
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a positive association between artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, research informing this topic in young adults is limited.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between ASB, SSB, and total sweetened beverage (TSB; combined ASB and SSB) consumption and T2D risk in young adults.
METHODS: A prospective analysis of 4719 Black and White men and women aged 18-30 y at baseline was conducted from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Each participant's beverage intake was assessed using the CARDIA Diet History at baseline and at study Years 7 and 20. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine cumulative average ASB, SSB, and TSB intakes and risk of T2D.
RESULTS: During the 30-y follow-up period, 680 participants developed T2D. ASB consumption was associated with a 12% greater risk of T2D per serving/day (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.20) in a model adjusted for lifestyle factors, diet quality, and dieting behavior. Further adjustments for baseline BMI (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) and weight change during follow-up (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12) attenuated the association. SSB and TSB consumption as continuous variables per 1 serving/day of intake were associated with 6% and 5% increased risks of T2D, respectively (HRSSB 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.10; HRTSB 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09), in the model accounting for lifestyle factors, dieting behavior, baseline BMI, and weight change. Results were consistent when the exposures were modeled in categories of consumption and quintiles.
CONCLUSIONS: In young adults, long-term ASB, SSB, and TSB consumption were associated with increased risks of T2D. However, the estimates for ASB were attenuated when accounting for weight changes.