Curative effect of xanthohumol supplementation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis: Potential involvement of autophagy.
J Tradit Complement Med. 2020 May ;10(3):230-235. Epub 2019 Feb 10. PMID: 32670817
Xanthohumol (XH), a plant flavonoid, was shown to attenuate cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development induced by the liver fluke(Ov) and-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA) in the hamster model. We investigated the possible involvement of autophagy, a self-degrading process dysregulated in cancer, in XH chemotherapeutic effect. During cholangiocarcinogenesis, the expression of LC3 (an autophagic marker) was increased in the precancerous stage and decreased in the cancerous stage. The XH-treated ON (Ov plus NDMA) group showed retarded progression of CCA along with increased expression of LC3. The possible relation between autophagy and cell death was investigated in cultured human CCA cells. XH induced apoptosis associated with reduced expression of BCL-2 and increased expression of BAX. In parallel, XH induced the autophagy flux, as testified by increased LC3-II and decreased p62, along with induction of BECLIN1 and Vps34. Inhibition of BECLIN1-dependent autophagy greatly limited XH toxicity in CCA cells. These data suggest that XH attenuates the development of CCA through overstimulation of autophagy which then precipitates apoptosis.