Ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation lead to structural alterations in mouse model and protective effects of intranasal curcumin: A comparative study.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2016 Apr 1. Epub 2016 Apr 1. PMID: 27046748
BACKGROUND: Antigen exposure and persistent inflammation leads to structural changes in the asthmatic airways which are collectively termed as"airway remodelling". Presently available asthma medications ameliorate inflammations but are unable to prevent or reverse the airway remodelling process as most of the treatment strategies are only focused on inflammation instead of remodelling.
METHODS: Curcumin, a phytochemical present in the rhizome of Curcuma longa is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity; however, the main drawback is its poor bioavailability which limits its therapeutic approval. So, the effect of nasal curcumin on acute and chronic asthma has been studied where short exposure to ovalbumin (4 days) represents acute phase whereas repeated exposures for longer (twice per week till 5 weeks) represents chronic asthma. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, 50mg/kg, i.p.) and dexamethasone (1mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs in acute and chronic model of asthma respectively.
RESULTS: OVA-induced airway inflammation initiated in acute stage led to remodelling due to persistent inflammation, epithelial and sub epithelial thickening (smooth muscle thickening), extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus plug formation. Intranasal curcumin is effective in inhibiting airway inflammation and remodelling both by maintaining the structural integrity of lungs in terms of inflammation, airway wall thickening and mucus production.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that curcumin administered through nasal route might prove therapeutically efficient in inhibiting allergic airway inflammations and maintaining structural integrity in the mouse model of allergic asthma. This may lead to the development of curcumin aerosol in near future.