Curcumin prevents neuronal loss and structural changes in the superior cervical (sympathetic) ganglion induced by chronic sleep deprivation, in the rat model.
Biol Res. 2020 Jul 10 ;53(1):31. Epub 2020 Jul 10. PMID: 32650839
BACKGROUND: In modern societies, sleep deprivation is a serious health problem. This problem could be induced by a variety of reasons, including lifestyle habits or neurological disorders. Chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) could have complex biological consequences, such as changes in neural autonomic control, increased oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is an important sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system. CSD can lead to a wide range of neurological consequences in SCG, which mainly supply innervations to circadian system and other structures. As the active component of Curcuma longa, curcumin possesses many therapeutic properties; including neuroprotective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CSD on the SCG histomorphometrical changes and the protective effect of curcumin in preventing these changes.
METHODS: Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to the control, curcumin, CSD, CSD + curcumin, grid floor control, and grid floor + curcumin groups. The CSD was induced by a modified multiple platform apparatus for 21 days and animals were sacrificed at the end of CSD or treatment, and their SCGs removed for stereological and TUNEL evaluations and also spatial arrangement of neurons in this structure.
RESULTS: Concerning stereological findings, CSD significantly reduced the volume of SCG and its total number of neurons and satellite glial cells in comparison with the control animals (P < 0.05). Treatment of CSD with curcumin prevented these decreases. Furthermore, TUNEL evaluation showed significant apoptosis in the SCG cells in the CSD group, and treatment with curcumin significantly decreased this apoptosis (P < 0.01). This decrease in apoptosis was observed in all control groups that received curcumin. CSD also changed the spatial arrangement of ganglionic neurons into a random pattern, whereas treatment with curcumin preserved its regular pattern.
CONCLUSIONS: CSD could potentially induce neuronal loss and structural changes including random spatial distribution in the SCG neurons. Deleterious effects of sleep deprivation could be prevented by the oral administration of curcumin. Furthermore, the consumption of curcumin in a healthy person might lead to a reduction of cell death.