Embelin Attenuates Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-Induced Behavioral, Biochemical, and Neurochemical Abnormalities in Rats.
Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Oct 15. Epub 2016 Oct 15. PMID: 27744573
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats. Embelin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated for 14 days from seventh day onwards after first ICV-STZ infusion in rats. On day 22,rats were sacrificed and hippocampal brain regions were used to identify biochemical, neurochemical, and neuroinflammatory alterations. STZ-infused rats showed significant learning and memory deficit which was associated with an increase in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and nitrite), compromised antioxidant defense (reduced glutathione), neurotransmitter alterations (AChE, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, gama amino butyric acid, and glutamate), and elevation in neuroinflammatory cytokine (IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels. Embelin dose dependently attenuated STZ-induced cognitive deficit and biochemical alterations and restored hippocampal neurochemical levels. The observed protective effect might be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of embelin and its ability to restore hippocampal neurochemistry. Thus, the outcomes of the current study suggest therapeutic potential of embelin in cognitive disorders such as sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD).