Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through regulation of glutathione pool.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jul ;103:1223-1230. Epub 2018 May 7. PMID: 29864902
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes and the major cause of chronic kidney disease. Cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most widespread anthocyanin in nature. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible effects of C3G on DN in db/db mice. We found that body weights and high levels of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and systolic blood pressure in diabetic mice were significantly reduced by C3G. C3G also reduced the ratio of kidney to body weight and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urinary albumin content and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), ameliorated the pathological changes of kidneys, reduced the surface area of Bowman's capsule, glomerular tuft, Bowman's space, and decreased renal expression of collagen IV, fibronectin, transforming growth factorβ 1 (TGFβ1), matrix metalloprotein 9 (MMP9) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in db/db mice. The Lee's index, perirenal white adipose tissue weight, and high levels of blood and renal triglyceride and cholesterol were decreased by C3G. Moreover, C3G reduced systemic levels and renal expression of tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), IL-1ɑ, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), indicating the inhibition of inflammation. Furthermore, C3G increased glutathione (GSH) level and decreased GSSG level in kidneys of diabetic mice. The renal mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalyticsubunit (GCLC) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) was increased by C3G in diabetic mice. Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, inhibited the effects of C3G on glucose metabolic dysfunction and DN. The data demonstrates that enhancement of GSH pool is involved in the renal-protective effects of C3G. Overall, C3G could be a promising therapeutic option for attenuation of diabetes and DN.