Abstract Title:

Anaphylaxis to excipient mannitol: evidence for an immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism.

Abstract Source:

Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 Oct;34(10):1602-9. PMID: 15479277

Abstract Author(s):

V L Hegde, Y P Venkatesh

Article Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, India.


BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis to mannitol present naturally in pomegranate and cultivated mushroom in a sensitized subject has been described recently, and an IgE-mediated mechanism to this sugar alcohol has been proposed. The same subject also experienced severe allergic reactions to a chewable pharmaceutical (cisapride drug). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify allergenic component in the pharmaceutical preparation, and also, to understand the mechanism of immediate hypersensitivity to mannitol. METHODS: Methodology involved skin prick tests (SPTs), high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of pharmaceutical preparations, separation of mannitol by Ca++-ion-moderated cation-exchange chromatography, preparation of alditol-protein conjugates by reductive amination, SPT using the conjugates, hapten affinity purification of the allergic serum on D-mannitol-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)-Sepharose CL-6B, and detection of serum mannitol-specific IgE by ELISA. RESULTS: Component testing by SPT, and HPLC analysis of various pharmaceuticals indicated that the excipient mannitol is the causative allergen. Mannitol separated from Cisapid MPS showed allergenic activity by SPT. Among the several conjugates tested by SPT, D-mannitol-bovine serum albumin and D-mannitol-KLH showed positive weal/flare reaction, demonstrating the presence of cell-bound mannitol-specific IgE in vivo. Negative results with D-glucitol, D-galactitol, meso-erythritol, and L-mannitol protein conjugates clearly showed that the mannitol-specific human IgE is very specific to the D-isomer of mannitol. ELISA using the hapten affinity-purified allergic serum was positive, demonstrating the presence of mannitol-specific serum IgE in the allergic subject. CONCLUSION: Mannitol, which is widely used as a food and drug additive (excipient), can rarely cause IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. This study is the first one to demonstrate the presence of mannitol-specific human IgE in a sensitized allergic subject to validate an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanism for mannitol.

Study Type : Commentary
Additional Links
Problem Substances : D-mannitol : CK(3) : AC(2)

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