Neuroprotective Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 against Hyperphosphorylated Tau-Induced Diabetic Retinal Neurodegeneration via Activation of IRS-1/Akt/GSK3β Signaling.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Jul 31 ;67(30):8348-8360. Epub 2019 Jul 19. PMID: 31304751
We have recently demonstrated that tau hyperphosphorylation causes diabetic synaptic neurodegeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which might be the earliest affair during the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Thus, there is a pressing need to seek therapeutic agents possessing neuroprotective effects against tau hyperphosphorylation in RGCs for arresting the progression of DR. Here, using a well-characterized diabetes model of/mouse, we discovered that topical ocular application of 10 mg/kg/day of ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1), one of the major active ingredients extracted fromand, ameliorated hyperphosphorylated tau-triggered RGCs synaptic neurodegeneration in diabetic mice. The neuroprotective effects of GRg1 on diabetic retinae were abrogated when retinal IRS-1 or Akt was suppressed by intravitreal injection with si-or topically coadministered with a specific inhibitor of Akt, respectively. However, selective repression of retinal GSK3β by intravitreal administration of si-rescued the neuroprotective properties of GRg1 when Akt was inactivated. Therefore, the present study showed for the first time that GRg1 can prevent hyperphosphorylated tau-induced synaptic neurodegeneration of RGCs via activation of IRS-1/Akt/GSK3β signaling in the early phase of DR. Moreover, our data clarify the potential therapeutic significance of GRg1 for neuroprotective intervention strategies of DR.