Risk factors for measles infection in 0-7 month old children in China after the 2010 nationwide measles campaign: A multi-site case-control study, 2012-2013.
Vaccine. 2016 12 12 ;34(51):6553-6560. Epub 2016 Mar 21. PMID: 27013438
INTRODUCTION: Endemic measles persists in China, despite>95% reported coverage of two measles-containing vaccine doses and nationwide campaign that vaccinated more than 100 million children in 2010. We performed a case-control study in six Chinese provinces during January 2012 through June 2013 to identify risk factors for measles infection among children aged 0-7 months.
METHODS: Children with laboratory-confirmed measles were neighborhood matched with three controls. We interviewed parents of case and control infants on potential risk factors for measles. Adjusted matched odds ratios (mOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic modeling. We calculated attributable fractions for risk factors that could be interpreted as causal.
RESULTS: Eight hundred thirty cases and 2303 controls were enrolled. In multivariable analysis, male sex (mOR 1.6 [1.3, 2.0]), age 5-7 months (mOR 3.9 [3.0, 5.1]), migration between counties (mOR 2.3 [1.6, 3.4]), outpatient hospital visits (mOR 9.4 [6.6, 13.3]) and inpatient hospitalization (mOR 107.1 [48.8, 235.1]) were significant risk factors. The calculated attributable fractions for hospital visits was 43.1% (95% CI: 40.1, 47.5%) adjusted for age, sex and migration.
CONCLUSIONS: Hospital visitation was the largest risk factor for measles infection in infants. Improved hospital infection control practices would accelerate measles elimination in China.