Developmental changes of brain distribution and localization of oseltamivir and its active metabolite Ro 64-0802 in rats.
J Toxicol Sci. 2012 ;37(6):1217-23. PMID: 23208436
Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare.
Oseltamivir, a prodrug of the neuraminidase inhibitor [3R, 4R, 5S]-4-Acetamide-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropyl)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (Ro 64-0802), is widely used for treatment of influenza infections in Japan, but may be associated with mental instability and suicidal tendencies as a rare side effect, especially in infants and young patients. We examined developmental changes in the brain distribution of oseltamivir and Ro 64-0802, and in the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by 8 weeks. Brain concentration and Kp(,app,brain) (brain-to-plasma concentration ratio) of oseltamivir were highest in 2-week-old rats (1.45µg/g brain and 0.14, respectively), and were negatively correlated with both age and P-gp expression at the BBB. In contrast, brain concentration and Kp(,app,brain) of Ro 64-0802 after oral gavage of oseltamivir were lowest in 2-week-old rats (0.02 µg/g brain and 0.02), and increased with age. Mass imaging analysis revealed that both compounds were distributed homogenously in brain cross-sections, including the hippocampus. From these results, it was estimated that oseltamivir concentration throughout the brain cross-sections was 70-fold and 0.9-fold higher than that of Ro 64-0802 in 2-week-old and 8-week-old rats, respectively. Such developmental changes of prodrug/drug concentration ratio, if they also occur in humans, may provide a rational basis for the putative central nervous system (CNS) side effects in young patients.