Diabetic encephalopathy: beneficial effects of supplementation with fatty acidsω3 and nordihydroguaiaretic acid in a spontaneous diabetes rat model.
Lipids Health Dis. 2019 Feb 8 ;18(1):43. Epub 2019 Feb 8. PMID: 30736810
Gustavo Tomás Díaz-Gerevini
BACKGROUND: Diabetic encephalopathy is a chronic complications of diabetes mellitus that affects the central nervous system. We evaluated the effect ofω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation plus the antioxidant agent nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) on the etiopathology of diabetic encephalopathy in eSS rats, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: One hundred twenty spontaneous diabetic eSS male rats and 38 non-diabetic Wistar, used as healthy control, received monthly by intraperitoneal route,ω3 or ω6 PUFA (6.25 mg/kg) alone or plus NDGA (1.19 mg/kg) for 12 months. Diabetic rats had a worse performance in behavioural Hole-Board test. Histopathological analysis confirmed lesions in diabetic rats brain tissues. We also detected low expression of synaptophysin, a protein linked torelease of neurotransmitters, by immunohistochemically techniques in eSS rats brain. Biochemical and histopathological studies of brain were performed at 12th month. Biochemical analysis showed altered parameters related to metabolism. High levels of markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were detected in plasma and brain tissues. Data were analysed by ANOVA test and paired t test was used by comparison of measurements of the same parameter at different times.
RESULTS: The data obtained in this work showed that behavioural, biochemical and morphological alterations observed in eSS rats are compatible with previously reported indices in diabetic encephalopathy and are associated with increased glucolipotoxicity, chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress burden. Experimental treatments assayed modulated the values of studied parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: The treatments tested withω3 or ω3 plus NDGA showed improvement in the values of the studied parameters in eSS diabetic rats. These observations may form the basis to help in prevent and manage the diabetic encephalopathy.