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Abstract Title:

Diallyl Disulfide Attenuates Methotrexate-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Injury, Inflammation and Apoptosis and Enhances its Anti-tumor Activity.

Abstract Source:

Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25. PMID: 34042041

Abstract Author(s):

Marwa M Khalaf, Emad H M Hassanein, Abdel-Gawad S Shalkami, Ramadan A M Hemeida, Wafaa R Mohamed

Article Affiliation:

Marwa M Khalaf

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is used potently for a wide range of diseases. However, hepatic intoxication by MTX hinders its clinical use.

OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to investigate the diallyl disulfide (DADS) ability to ameliorate MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.

METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, DADS (50 mg/kg/day, orally), MTX (single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg) and DADS+MTX. Liver function biomarkers, histopathological examinations, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis biomarkers were investigated. Besides, an in vitro cytotoxic activity study was conducted to explore the modulatory effects of DADS on MTX cytotoxic activity using Caco-2, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells.

RESULTS: DADS significantly reduced the increased serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH. These results were confirmed by the alleviation of liver histopathological changes. It restored the decreased GSH content and SOD activity, while significantly decreased MTX-induced elevations in both MDA and NO2- contents. The hepatoprotective effects were mechanistically mediated through the up-regulation of hepatic Nrf-2 and the down-regulation of Keap-1, P38MAPK, and NF-κB expression levels. In addition, an increase in Bcl-2 level with a decrease in the expression of both Bax and caspase-3 was observed. The in vitro study showed that DADS increased MTX anti-tumor efficacy.

CONCLUSIONS: DADS potently alleviated MTX-induced hepatotoxicity through the modulation of Keap-1/Nrf-2, P38MAPK/NF-κB and apoptosis signaling pathways and effectively enhanced the MTX cytotoxic effects, which could be promising for further clinical trials.

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