Diallyl disulfide prevents cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Diallyl disulfide prevents cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Aug ;69:102053. Epub 2021 Jul 5. PMID: 34214692
Aline de Oliveira Pontes Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoke (CS) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary emphysema. The use of antioxidants has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat airway inflammation and lung diseases. In the current study, we investigated the potential therapeutic impact of diallyl disulfide (Dads) treatment in a murine model of CS-induced emphysema.
METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS for 60 consecutive days and treated with vehicle or Dads (30, 60 or 90 mg/kg) by oral gavage for the last 30 days, three times/week. The control group was sham-smoked and received vehicle treatment. All mice were euthanized 24 h after day 60; bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and lungs were processed for further experimentation. Histological (HE stained sections, assessment of mean linear intercept (Lm)), biochemical (nitrite, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents), and molecular biology (metalloproteinase (MMP) 12, SOD2, carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), nitrotyrosine (PNK), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and CYP2E1) analyses were performed.
RESULTS: Treatment with Dads dose-dependently reduced CS-induced leukocyte infiltration into the airways (based on BAL fluid counts) and improved lung histology (indicated by a reduction of Lm). Furthermore, CS exposure dramatically reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GST in lung tissue and increased nitrite and MDA levels in BAL; these effects were all effectively counteracted by Dads treatment. Western blot analysis further confirmed the antioxidant potential of Dads, showing that treatment prevented the CS-induced decrease in SOD2 expression and increase in lung damage markers, such as CBR1, PNK, and 4-HNE. Furthermore, increased MMP12 (an important hallmark of CS-induced emphysema) and CYP2E1 lung protein levels were significantly reduced in mice receiving Dads treatment.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that treatment with Dads is effective in preventing multiple pathological features of CS-induced emphysema in an in vivo mouse model. In addition, we have identified several proteins/enzymes, including 4-HNE, CBR1, and CYP2E1, that are modifiable by Dads and could represent specific therapeutic targets for the treatment of COPD and emphysema.