Diallyl thiosulfinate enhanced the anti-cancer activity of dexamethasone in the side population cells of multiple myeloma by promoting miR-127-3p and deactivating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2021 Feb 6 ;21(1):125. Epub 2021 Feb 6. PMID: 33549034
BACKGROUND: Side population (SP) cells, which have similar features to those of cancer stem cells, show resistance to dexamethasone (Dex) treatment. Thus, new drugs that can be used in combination with Dex to reduce the population of SP cells in multiple myeloma (MM) are required. Diallyl thiosulfinate (DATS, allicin), a natural organosulfur compound derived from garlic, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of SP cells in MM cell lines. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a combination of DATS and Dex (DAT + Dex) on MM SP cells.
METHODS: SP cells were sorted from MM RPMI-8226 and NCI-H929 cell lines using Hoechst 33342-labeled fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of SP cells was evaluated using the cell counting kit-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis assays were conducted using a BD Calibur flow cytometer. miRNA expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), AKT, p-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and mTOR levels were measured using western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the combination of DATS+Dex inhibited sphere formation, colony formation, and proliferation of MM SP cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase. In addition, the combination of DATS+Dex promoted miR-127-3p expression and inhibited PI3K, p-AKT, and p-mTOR expression in SP cells. Knockdown of miR-127-3p expression weakened the effect of DATS+Dex on cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of MM SP cells. Additionally, knockdown of miR-127-3p activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in MM SP cells cotreated with DATS+Dex.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that cotreatment with DATS+Dex reduced cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest of MM SP cells by promoting miR-127-3p expression and deactivating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.