Dichotomy of bisphenol A-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in hepatic and testicular tissues in mice.
Chemosphere. 2019 Jul 1 ;236:124264. Epub 2019 Jul 1. PMID: 31319301
Environmental and dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and its toxicological consequences are extensively reported. BPA has multiple cellular targets. One of the mechanisms of action of BPA involves interaction with and activation of nuclear receptors (NRs) including peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs). PPARs regulate genes involved in adipogenesis, and metabolism of glucose, lipid and cholesterol. Study of tissue and dose specific PPAR expression may decipher the toxicity outcome of BPA exposure. We studied expression of three forms of PPARs in mouse liver and testes exposed to BPA for 14 days. mRNA and protein expression of all forms of PPAR increased linearly (monotonic) with the dose in the liver while non-monotonic but dose specific effects were observed in the testes showing a differential pattern of expression. However, histopathological study showed a dose-dependent pattern of changes in liver as well as testes demonstrating a monotonic effect. These findings imply that other PPAR-independent mechanisms may play a role in BPA-induced pathological changes. The present study warrants exploration of the role of PPARs in BPA-induced effects on male reproductive functions and offers an insight into the peculiar response of BPA at low subchronic levels which may be helpful in designing appropriate risk assessment framework.