Dieckol-Attenuated High-Fat Diet Induced Muscle Atrophy by Modulating Muscular Deposition of Lipid Droplets.
Nutrients. 2021 Sep 10 ;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 10. PMID: 34579038
An excessive fat diet induces intramuscular fat deposition that accumulates as a form of lipid droplet (LD) and leads to lipotoxicity, including muscle atrophy or decreasing muscle strength. Lipotoxicity depends on the number of LDs, subcellular distribution (intermyofibrillar, IMF, LDs or subsarcolemmal, SS), and fiber type-specific differences (type I or type II fiber) as well as the size of LD.extracts (ECE), which is known to increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), which leads to decreasing expression level of perilipin2 (PLIN2). PLIN2 is involved in modulating the size of LDs. This study shows that ECE and dieckol could decrease PLIN2 expression and decrease the size and number of LDs in the muscle of high-fat diet (HF)-fed animals and lead to attenuating muscle atrophy. Expression level of PPAR-α was decreased, and PLIN2 was increased by HF. ECE and dieckol increased PPAR-α expression and decreased PLIN2. The diameter of LDs was increased in high-fat diet condition, and it was decreased by ECE or dieckol treatment. The number of LDs in type II fibers/total LDs was increased by HF and it was decreased by ECE or dieckol. The SS LDs were increased, and IMF LDs were decreased by HF. ECE or dieckol decreased SS LDs and increased IMF LDs. The ECE or dieckol attenuated the upregulation of muscle atrophy-related genes including Murf1, Atrogin-1, and p53 by HF. ECE or dieckol increased the cross-sectional area of the muscle fibers and grip strength, which were decreased by HF. In conclusion, ECE or dieckol decreased the size of LDs and modulated the contribution of LDs to less toxic ones by decreasing PLIN2 expression and thus attenuated muscle atrophy and strength, which were induced by HF.