Cacao extract enriched in polyphenols prevents endocrine-metabolic disturbances in a rat model of prediabetes triggered by a sucrose rich diet.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Sep 30:112263. Epub 2019 Sep 30. PMID: 31580944
María Cecilia Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cocoa extracts rich in polyphenols are used as potential agent for treating diabetes. Cocoa polyphenols have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of type-2 diabetes (T2D). They can regulate glucose levels by increasing insulin secretion, promotingβ-cell proliferation and a reduction of insulin resistance. In addition, epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of flavonoid decreases the incidence of T2D.
AIM OF THE STUDY: T2D is preceded by a prediabetic state in which the endocrine-metabolic changes described in T2D are already present. Since epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of flavonoid decreases its incidence, we evaluated possible preventive effects of polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract on a model of prediabetes induced by sucrose.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined circulating parameters and insulin sensitivity indexes, liver protein carbonyl groups and reduced glutathione, liver mRNA expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, expression of different pro-inflammatory mediators, fructokinase activity and liver glycogen content. For that, radioimmunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry were used.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that sucrose administration triggered hypertriglyceridemia, insulin-resistance, and liver increased oxidative stress and inflammation markers compared to control rats. Additionally, we found an increase in glycogen deposit, fructokinase activity, and lipogenic genes expression (SREBP-1c, FAS and GPAT) together with a decrease in P-Akt and P-eNOS protein content (P < 0.05). Sucrose-induced insulin resistance, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid dysmetabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation were effectively disrupted by polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract (PECE) co-administration (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Dietary administration of cocoa flavanols may be an effective and complementary tool for preventing or reverting T2D at an early stage of its development (prediabetes).