Dietary bioactive diindolylmethane enhances the therapeutic efficacy of centchroman in breast cancer cells by regulating ABCB1/P-gp efflux transporter.
J Nutr Biochem. 2021 08 ;94:108749. Epub 2021 Apr 25. PMID: 33910062
Overexpression of drug efflux transporters is commonly associated with multidrug-resistance in cancer therapy. Here for the first time, we investigated the ability of diindolylmethane (DIM), a dietary bioactive rich in cruciferous vegetables, in enhancing the efficacy of Centchroman (CC) by modulating the drug efflux transporters in human breast cancer cells. CC is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, having promising therapeutic efficacy against breast cancer. The combination of DIM and CC synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. This novel combination has also hindered the stemness of human breast cancer cells. Molecular docking analysis revealed that DIM had shown a strong binding affinity with the substrate-binding sites of ABCB1 (P-gp) and ABCC1 (MRP1) drug-efflux transporters. DIM has increased the intracellular accumulation of Hoechst and Calcein, the substrates of P-gp and MRP1, respectively, in breast cancer cells. Further, DIM stimulates P-gp ATPase activity, which indicates that DIM binds at the substrate-binding domain of P-gp, and thereby inhibits its efflux activity. Intriguingly, DIM enhanced the intracellular concentration of CC by inhibiting the P-gp and MRP1 expression as well as activity. The intracellular retaining of CC has increased its efficacy against breast cancer. Overall, DIM, a dietary bioactive, enhances the anticancer efficiency of CC through modulation of drug efflux ABC-transporters in breast cancer cells. Therefore, DIM-based nutraceuticals and functional foods can be developed as adjuvant therapy against human breast cancer.