Dietary delphinidin inhibits human colorectal cancer metastasis associating with upregulation of miR-204-3p and suppression of the integrin/FAK axis.
Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 12 ;9(1):18954. Epub 2019 Dec 12. PMID: 31831830
Delphinidin is a flavonoid belonging to dietary anthocyanidin family that has been reported to possess diverse anti-tumoral activities. However, the effects of delphinidin on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to investigate the anti-cancer activity of delphinidin in CRC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of delphinidin on the viability, metastatic characteristics, signaling, and microRNA (miR) profile of human CRC cell lines used were analyzed. In vivo metastasis was also evaluated using xenograft animal models. Our findings showed that delphinidin (<100μM) inhibited the colony formation of DLD-1, SW480, and SW620 cells, but non-significantly affected cell viability. Delphinidin also suppressed the migratory ability and invasiveness of the tested CRC cell lines, downregulated integrin αV/β3 expression, inhibited focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src/paxillin signaling, and interfered with cytoskeletal construction. Analysis of the miR expression profile revealed a number of miRs, particularly miR-204-3p, that were significantly upregulated and downregulated by delphinidin. Abolishing the expression of one upregulated miR, miR-204-3p, with an antagomir restored delphinidin-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasiveness in DLD-1 cells as well as the αV/β3-integrin/FAK/Src axis. Delphinidin also inhibited the lung metastasis of DLD-1 cells in the xenograft animal model. Collectively, these results indicate that the migration and invasion of CRC cells are inhibited by delphinidin, and the mechanism may involve the upregulation of miR-204-3p and consequent suppression of the αV/β3-integrin/FAK axis. These findings suggest that delphinidin exerts anti-metastatic effects in CRC cells by inhibiting integrin/FAK signaling and indicate that miR-204-3p may play an important role in CRC metastasis.