Effects of dietary flaxseed on intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min) mouse.
Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):276-83. PMID: 19235044
Dietary flaxseed has been shown to prevent azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancers in male Fisher rats. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive effects of dietary flaxseed on the development of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) mice. Apc(Min) mice were divided into five different groups, fed with control (AIN-93M meal), corn meal, flaxseed meal, corn oil, and flaxseed oil supplemented diets. Results showed that dietary flaxseed significantly decreased (P<0.05) tumor multiplicity and size in the small intestine and colon as compared to control, corn-treated groups. Intestine, colon, and serum samples of corn-treated groups showed higher levels of omega -6 fatty acids, whereas the flaxseed treated groups exhibited higher levels of omega -3 fatty acids. Lignans were detected in the serum, intestine, and colon samples for flaxseed meal group. COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the colon samples from the flaxseed meal group were significantly lower (P<0.05) as compared to the corn meal group. Dietary flaxseed may be chemopreventive for intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice possibly by increasing omega -3 fatty acid levels, lignans, and decreasing COX-1 and COX-2 levels.