E-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury: a review. - GreenMedInfo Summary
E-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury: a review.
Pneumonia (Nathan). 2020 ;12:12. Epub 2020 Oct 25. PMID: 33110741
Samuel H Belok
Background: E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) is a disease entity related to the use of battery-operated or superheating devices that create an aerosolized form of nicotine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or other substances for inhalation.
Methods: We performed a literature review to document epidemiology, pathogenesis and risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, evaluation and management of EVALI.
Results: In the summer of 2019, an outbreak of EVALI cases brought this disease entity into the national spotlight. Since being recognized as a serious pulmonary disease with public health implications, more than 2600 cases have been reported to CDC with 68 deaths as of February 2020. The pathophysiology of EVALI remains unknown. Substances such as Vitamin E acetate have been implicated as a possible causes of lung injury. The CDC has established case definitions of"confirmed EVALI"cases to help guide identification of the disease and assist in surveillance. While clinical judgement by healthcare providers is imperative in the identification of EVALI cases, the heterogeneous presentations of EVALI make this difficult as well. Ultimately most investigative studies should be aimed at ruling out other disease processes that can present similarly. Treatment is centered around removing the offending substance and providing supportive care.
Conclusions: EVALI is a serious pulmonary disease with public health implications. Diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion to diagnose and exclusion of other possible causes of lung disease. It may be beneficial to involve a pulmonary specialist early in the management of this disease which is generally supportive care.