Effects of air pollutants on occurrences of influenza-like illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza in Hefei, China.
Int J Biometeorol. 2019 Jan ;63(1):51-60. Epub 2018 Oct 31. PMID: 30382350
Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health outcomes. However, the different impacts of exposure to air pollutants on influenza virus activity and influenza-like illness (ILI) have not been well documented in epidemiological studies. We examined the association between air pollutants of particular matters< 2.5 μm (PM), particular matters< 10 μm (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO), and influenza occurrences in Hefei, China, from December 2013 to December 2015 by generalized Poisson additive regression models. The result suggested that PMand PMhad similar effects on clinical ILI and influenza incidence. PMwas negatively associated with clinical ILI (relative risk (RR) 0.980, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.974-0.987), while PMwere positively associated with clinical ILI (RR 1.040; 95% CI 1.032-1.049). RRs for the laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza were 0.813 (95% CI, 0.755-0.875) for PMand 1.216 (95% CI, 1.134-1.304) for PM. Nevertheless, the impacts of SOand NOon ILI and influenza were distinct. SOhad significant influence on laboratory-confirmed influenza and had no significant linear relationship with ILI. NOwas negatively correlated with influenza but had no obvious effect on clinical ILI cases. The present study contributes novel evidence on understanding of the effects of various air pollutants on influenza activities, and these findings can be useful and important for the development of influenza surveillance and early warning systems.