Effects of Fish Oil and Grape Seed Extract Combination on Hepatic Endogenous Antioxidants and Bioactive Lipids in Diet-Induced Early Stages of Insulin Resistance in Rats.
Mar Drugs. 2020 Jun 16 ;18(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16. PMID: 32560216
Diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides have been suggested as early predictors of insulin resistance. This study was aimed to examine the combined effects of fish oil (FO) and grape seed extract (GSE) on hepatic endogenous antioxidants, DAG and ceramides in diet-induced early stages of insulin resistance. Thirty-five rats were fed one of the following diets: (1) a standard diet (STD group), (2) a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS group), (3) an HFHS diet enriched with FO (FO group), (4) an HFHS diet enriched with GSE (GSE group) or (5) an HFHS diet enriched with FO and GSE (FO + GSE group). In the liver, endogenous antioxidants were measured using spectrophotometric and fluorometric techniques, and non-targeted lipidomics was conducted for the assessment of DAG and ceramides. After 24 weeks, the FO + GSE group showed increased glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing DAG, and long-chain fatty acid-containing ceramides abundances compared to the STD group. The FO and GSE combination induced similar activation of the antioxidant system and bioactive lipid accumulation in the liver than the HFHS diet without supplementation. In addition, the FO and GSE combination increased the abundances of polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing DAG in the liver.