EGCG has significant antipathogenic effects on C. difficile. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Inhibitory Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on the Virulence of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027.
J Food Sci. 2015 Dec ;80(12):M2925-31. Epub 2015 Nov 10. PMID: 26556797
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most prevalent cause of health-care-associated infections. CDI-related health-care costs and deaths are both increasing annually on a global scale. C. difficile have been reported in food products in Canada, Europe, and the United States; however, the systematic transmission of C. difficile between humans and animals is yet to be understood. Because of the limitations of current therapeutic options, there is a need for the development of new patient treatments. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major catechin compound found in green tea extracts and exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of EGCG on the expression of virulence genes in C. difficile and in C. difficile-associated diseases by inhibition of quorum sensing. The protein expression of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) was evaluated by AI-2 activity. EGCG at various concentrations had an inhibitory effect on AI-2 production, especially at 10μg/mL. EGCG also significantly repressed the transcription of virulence genes, including luxS and tcdA, and prolonged the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with C. difficile. Furthermore, treatment with EGCG effectively protected C. difficile-infected mice from C. difficile-induced death.Histological analysis of the colon and cecum of these mice revealed that EGCG protected tissues of the lower intestinal tract from damage. EGCG exerted growth-inhibitory and bactericidal activities on C. difficile in C. difficile-infected mice. Our results suggest that EGCG has significant antipathogenic effects on C. difficile and can be used to prevent or treat C. difficile-associated diseases or C. difficile infections.