Ellagic acid protects Caco-2 cell monolayers against inflammation-induced permeabilization. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ellagic acid protects Caco-2 cell monolayers against inflammation-induced permeabilization.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Jan 23. Epub 2020 Jan 23. PMID: 31981623
Dario E Iglesias
Chronic intestinal inflammation involves a cycle of oxidative stress, activation of redox sensitive transcription factors, and barrier permeabilization. The latter can lead to systemic inflammation and its associated co-morbidities. Diet can play a major role in the modulation of intestinal inflammation. Among plant bioactives, ellagic acid (EA) was reported to inhibit inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. This work investigated the mechanisms by which EA inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and loss of barrier integrity. Caco-2 cells differentiated into an intestinal epithelial cell monolayer were incubated with TNFα (10 ng/ml), in the presence of different EA concentrations. TNFα triggered interleukin (IL) 6 and 8 release into the medium, which was inhibited by EA in a dose-dependent manner (IC = 17.3 μM for IL-6). TNFα also led to: i) increased ICAM-1 and NLRP3 expression; ii) loss of epithelial barrier function; iii) increased oxidant production from NOX and mitochondrial origin; iv) NF-κB and ERK1/2 activation; and v) increased MLCK gene expression and MLC phosphorylation. EA (10-40 μM) inhibited all these adverse effects of TNFα. EA mainly acted through NF-κB and ERK1/2 inhibition, breaking the cycle of inflammation, oxidative stress, redox-sensitive pathway (e.g. NF-κB, ERK1/2) activation and intestinal permeabilization. This suggests that consumption of EA, via foods or supplements, may afford a strategy to mitigate intestinal inflammation and its associated co-morbidities.