Amelioration of Aluminum Maltolate-Induced Inflammation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by Tannoid Principles of Emblica officinalis in Neuronal Cellular Model.
Neurotox Res. 2019 Feb ;35(2):318-330. Epub 2018 Sep 21. PMID: 30242626
Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi
The neuroprotective role of tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (EoT), an Indian and Chinese traditional medicinal plant against memory loss in aluminum chloride-induced in vivo model of Alzheimer's disease through attenuating AChE activity, oxidative stress, amyloid and tau toxicity, and apoptosis, was recently reported in our lab. However, to further elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotective effect of EoT, the current study was designed to evaluate endoplasmic reticulum stress-suppressing and anti-inflammatory role of EoT in PC 12 and SH-SY 5Y cells. These cells were divided into four groups: control (aluminum maltolate (Al(mal)), EoT + Al(mal), and EoT alone based on 3-(4, 5-dimethyl 2-yl)-2, and 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. EoT significantly reduced Al(mal)-induced cell death and attenuated ROS, mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, and apoptosis (protein expressions of Bax; Bcl-2; cleaved caspases 3, 6, 9, 12; and cytochrome c) by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress (PKR-like ER kinase (PERK),α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2-α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)). Moreover, inflammatory response (NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and Aβ toxicity (Aβ) triggered by Al(mal)was significantly normalized by EoT. Our results suggested that EoT could be a possible/promising and novel therapeutic lead against Al-induced neurotoxicity. However, further extensive research is needed to prove its efficacy in clinical studies.