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Abstract Title:

Emerging role and therapeutic application of exosome in hepatitis virus infection and associated diseases.

Abstract Source:

J Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4. PMID: 33665710

Abstract Author(s):

Ying Shi, Lingyao Du, Duoduo Lv, Yan Li, Zilong Zhang, Xiaolun Huang, Hong Tang

Article Affiliation:

Ying Shi

Abstract:

Hepatitis viruses are chief pathogens of hepatitis and end-stage liver diseases. Their replication and related pathogenic process highly rely on the host micro-environment and multiple cellular elements, including exosomes. Representing with a sort of cell-derived vesicle structure, exosomes were considered to be dispensable cellular components, even wastes. Along with advancing investigation, a specific profile of exosome in driving hepatitis viruses' infection and hepatic disease progression is revealed. Exosomes greatly affect the pathogenesis of hepatitis viruses by mediating their replication and modulating the host immune responses. The characteristics of host exosomes are markedly changed after infection with hepatitis viruses. Exosomes released from hepatitis virus-infected cells can carry viral nucleic or protein components, thereby acting as an effective subterfuge for hepatitis viruses by participating in viral transportation and immune escape. On the contrary, immune cell-derived exosomes contribute toward the innate antiviral immune defense and virus eradication. There is growing evidence supporting the application of exosomal biomarkers for predicting disease progress or therapeutic outcome, while exosomal nanoshuttles are regarded as promising therapeutic options based on their delivery properties and immune compatibility. In this review, we summarize the biogenesis and secretion mechanism of exosomes, review the recent findings pertaining to the role of exosomes in the interplay between hepatitis viruses and innate immune responses, and conclude their potential in further therapeutic application.

Study Type : Review
Additional Links
Additional Keywords : Exosomes : CK(312) : AC(199)

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