Folic acid therapy reduces serum uric acid in hypertensive patients: a substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).
Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Feb 1. Epub 2017 Feb 1. PMID: 28148501
BACKGROUND: The effect of folic acid supplementation on uric acid (UA) concentrations is still inconclusive.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the efficacy of folic acid therapy in reducing serum UA in hypertensive patients.
DESIGN: A total of 15,364 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with a single tablet that contained 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7685) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7679). The main outcome was the change in serum UA, which was defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. Secondary outcomes were as follows: 1) controlled hyperuricemia (UA concentration<357μmol/L after treatment) and 2) new-onset hyperuricemia in participants with normal UA concentrations (<357μmol/L).
RESULTS: After a median of 4.4 y of treatment, the mean± SD UA concentration increased by 34.7 ± 72.5 μmol/L in the enalapril-alone group and by 30.7 ± 71.8 μmol/L in the enalapril-folic acid group, which resulted in a mean group difference of -4.0 μmol/L (95% CI: -6.5, -1.6 μmol/L; P = 0.001). Furthermore, compared with enalapril alone, enalapril-folic acid treatment showed an increase in controlled hyperuricemia (30.3% compared with 25.6%; OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.70) and a decrease in new-onset hyperuricemia (15.0% compared with 16.3%; OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.99). A greater beneficial effect was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia(P-interaction = 0.07) or higher concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) (P-interaction = 0.02) at baseline. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse relation (P<0.001) between the reduction of tHcy and the change in UA concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS: Enalapril-folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, can significantly reduce the magnitude of the increase of UA concentrations in hypertensive adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885.