An 8-Week Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum Combined with Exercise Training Alleviates Neurotoxicity of Aβ and Spatial Learning via Acetylcholine in Alzheimer Rat Model.
J Mol Neurosci. 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14. PMID: 33715084
This study aimed to determine the effects of 8 weeks of an administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum combined with exercise training on neurotoxicity of Aβ, spatial learning, acetylcholine (ACH), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in Alzheimer rats. Twenty-five Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 5 in each): (1) healthy control (control), (2) Alzheimer disease (AD), (3) AD with treadmill exercise (AD + Exe), (4) AD with probiotic (combined administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum) treatment (AD + Pro), and (5) AD with treadmill exercise andprobiotic treatment (AD + Exe + Pro). AD was induced by intra-cerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 peptide. Then, the training groups exercised on treadmill for 8 weeks, 5 days per weeks. The rats were treated daily with probiotic supplements via gavage for 8 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was administered to measure spatial learning. Then, the animals were sacrificed and Vegf and ACH were analyzed using the qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods, respectively. Results showed that the β-amyloid plaques were significantly increased in the brains of the AD group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). The combined use of probiotics and exercise training significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant after removing the platform, compared with the AD group in the Morris water maze test (p < 0.001). Crystal violet analysis showed that sole (p < 0.01) and combined exercise training and probiotic supplementation (p < 0.001) significantly reduced the number of dead cells in the brains of rats compared with the AD group. AD significantly decreased Vegf mRNA and ACH in the CA1 area of the hippocampus (p < 0.001). However, mono and combined therapy (exercise and probiotics) significantly increased ACH in the rats' brain compared with the AD group. Overall, 8 weeks of an administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum combined with exercise training can improve spatial learning impairment in the AD rats. Exercise and probiotics seem to offer potential benefits to AD patients by upregulating ACH.