Exercise-induced improvements in glucose effectiveness are blunted by a high glycemic diet in adults with prediabetes.
Acta Diabetol. 2019 Feb ;56(2):211-217. Epub 2019 Jan 5. PMID: 30612202
AIMS: Glucose effectiveness (GE) refers to the ability of glucose to influence its own metabolism through insulin-independent mechanisms. Diminished GE is a predictor of progression to type 2 diabetes. Exercise training improves GE, however, little is known about how dietary interventions, such as manipulating the glycemic index of diets, interact with exercise-induced improvements in GE in at-risk populations.
METHODS: We enrolled 33 adults with obesity and pre-diabetes (17 males, 65.7 ± 4.3 years, 34.9 ± 4.2 kg m) into a 12-week exercise training program (1 h dayand 5 day weekat ~ 85% of maximum heart rate) while being randomized to concurrently receive either a low (EX-LOG: 40 ± 0.3 au) or high (EX-HIG: 80 ± 0.6 au) glycemic index diet. A 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after the intervention and GE was calculated using the Nagasakaequation. Insulin resistance was estimated using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and cardiorespiratory fitness using a VOtest.
RESULTS: Both EX-LOG and EX-HIG groups had similar improvements in weight (8.6 ± 5.1 kg, P < 0.001), VO(6 ± 3.5 mL kg min, P < 0.001) and clamp-measured peripheral insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.9 mg kg min, P < 0.001), relative to baseline data. GE in EX-LOG and EX-HIG was similar at baseline (1.9 ± 0.38 vs. 1.85 ± 0.3 mg dL min, respectively; P > 0.05) and increased by ~ 20% post-intervention in the EX-LOG arm (∆GE: 0.07-0.57 mg dL min, P < 0.05). Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations also decreased only in the EX-LOG arm (∆FFA: 0.13 ± 0.23 mmol L, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that a high glycemic index diet may suppress exercise-induced enhancement of GE, and this may be mediated through plasma FFAs.