Exosomes: from carcinogenesis and metastasis to diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Exosomes: from carcinogenesis and metastasis to diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8. PMID: 30734835
Exosomes represent an important group of extracellular vesicles with a defined size between 40 and 150 nm and cup-shaped construction which have a pivotal role in elimination of intracellular debris and intercellular signaling networks. A line of evidence revealed the impact of different types of exosomes in initiation, progression, and metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). These bioactive vesicles mediate tumor and stromal communication network through modulation of cell signaling for carcinogenesis and pre-metastatic niche formation in distant organs. Exosomes contain various cargos including DNAs (mitochondrial and genomic), proteins, transposable elements, and RNAs (coding and noncoding) with different compositions related to functional status of origin cells. In this review, we summarize the main roles of key exosomal cargos in induction of exosome-mediated signaling in cancer cells. Body fluids are employed frequently as the source of exosomes released by tumor cells with a potentialrole in early diagnosis of GC and chemoresistance. These vesicles as non-toxic and non-immunogenic carriers are also found to be applied for novel drug delivery systems.