Exosomes facilitate transmission of Enterovirus A71 from human intestinal epithelial cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Exosomes facilitate transmission of Enterovirus A71 from human intestinal epithelial cells.
J Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9. PMID: 32271384
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has been noted for its tendency to lead to neurological manifestations in young children and infants. Although the alimentary tract has been identified as the primary replication site of this virus, how EV-A71 replicates in the gut and is transmitted to other organs remains unclear. By using differentiated C2BBe1 cells as a model, we observed that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were permissive to EV-A71 infection and viral particles were released in a nonlytic manner. The coexistence of active caspase 3 and EV-A71 protein was observed in the infected undifferentiated C2BBe1 and RD cells but not in the infected and differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Furthermore, EV-A71 infection caused differentiated C2BBe1 and intestinal organoids to secrete exosomes containing viral components and have the ability to establish active infection. Inhibition of the exosome pathway decreased EV-A71 replication and release in vitro and increased the survival rates of infected animals. Our findings showed that EV-A71 is able to be actively replicated in enterocytes, and that the exosome pathway is involved in the nonlytic release of viral particles, which may be useful for developing antiviral strategies.