Effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFS) from mobile phones on nickel release from orthodontic brackets: An in vitro study.
Int Orthod. 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11. PMID: 30007574
Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
BACKGROUND: The worldwide dramatic increase in the use of cell phones has generated great concerns about their potential adverse health effects.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from mobile phones on the level of nickel release from orthodontic brackets.
METHODS: Twenty stainless steel brackets were divided randomly into experimental and control groups (n=10). Brackets were immersed in artificial saliva at 37°C for 6 months. Experimental group were exposed to GSM 900MHz RF-EMFs emitted from a mobile phone stimulator for 4hours. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 2.287W/kg. The concentration of nickel in the artificial saliva in both groups was evaluated by using the cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess significant differences in nickel release between the exposed and non-exposed groups.
RESULTS: The mean nickel levels in the exposed and non-exposed groups were 11.95 and 2.89μg/l, respectively. This difference between the concentrations of nickel in the artificial saliva of these groups was statistically significant (P=0.001).
CONCLUSION: Exposure to RF-EMFs emitted from mobile phones can lead to human exposure to higher levels of nickel in saliva in patients with orthodontic appliances. As nickel exposure can lead to allergic reaction in humans and considering this point that about 10-20% of the population can be hypersensitive to nickel, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from common devices such as mobile phones or Wi-Fi routers on the level of nickel release from orthodontic brackets.