Combined Administration of Monosodium Glutamate and High Sucrose Diet Accelerates the Induction of Type 2 Diabetes, Vascular Dysfunction, and Memory Impairment in Rats.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2018 ;37(1):63-80. PMID: 29773001
In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20-30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta. Histological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney tissue were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas brain tissue was assessed using cresyl violet stain. Feeding MSG in combination with HSD in rats significantly increased body weight, and produced hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Animals developed frank diabetic complications, which included insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, hypertension, vascular dysfunction, nephropathy, and dementia. Histological studies revealed neuronal loss with necrotic bodies in the brain, reduction in glomerular count in kidney, and severe hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the islets of Langerhans. These results indicate the successful induction of type-2 diabetes along with several diabetic complications by combining MSG with HSD.