Hepatoprotective effect of polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil against sub-chronic cadmium hepatotoxicity in rats is associated with improvement in antioxidant defense system.
Drug Chem Toxicol. 2019 Apr 25:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 25. PMID: 31020860
Ademola C Famurewa
Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous non-essential environmental and industrial toxicant that affects various organs in humans and experimental animals. Robust evidence confirms the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of Cd-induced hepatic damage. Potent polyphenols found in virgin coconut oil (VCO) are free radical scavengers that may be beneficial against Cd hepatotoxicity. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the possible protective effect of polyphenols isolated from VCO on Cd-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols isolated from VCO (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg, orally) 2 weeks prior to concurrent Cd administration (5 mg/kg, orally) for 5 weeks. Subsequently, liver damage, hepatic oxidative stress, and histopathological alterations were evaluated. In vitro antioxidant assays (DPPH and FRAP) were carried out on VCO polyphenols. Cadmium induced liver damage demonstrated by significant alterations in serum markers of liver damage, as well as pronounced decrease in albumin and total protein compared to control. Further, Cd remarkably depressed hepatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), andglutathione (GSH) content. Hepatic lipid peroxidation was markedly increased as highlighted by malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Sub-chronic administration of VCO polyphenols to Cd-treated rats produced a significant hepatoprotective effect and restored hepatic oxidative stress markers comparable to control. The prominent improvement in histopathology of rat liver confirmed the biochemical findings. The findings suggest potential beneficial effect of VCO polyphenols on Cd-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats; the mechanism underlying this action is associated with improvement in antioxidant defense system.