Flavonoids on diabetic nephropathy: advances and therapeutic opportunities. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Flavonoids on diabetic nephropathy: advances and therapeutic opportunities.
Chin Med. 2021 Aug 7 ;16(1):74. Epub 2021 Aug 7. PMID: 34364389
With the advances in biomedical technologies, natural products have attracted substantial public attention in the area of drug discovery. Flavonoids are a class of active natural products with a wide range of pharmacological effects that are used for the treatment of several diseases, in particular chronic metabolic diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a complication of diabetes with a particularly complicated pathological mechanism that affects at least 30% of diabetic patients and represents a great burden on public health. A large number of studies have shown that flavonoids can alleviate diabetic nephropathy. This review systematically summarizes the use of common flavonoids for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. We found that flavonoids play a therapeutic role in diabetic nephropathy mainly by regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. Nrf-2/GSH, ROS production, HO-1, TGF-β1 and AGEs/RAGE are involved in the process of oxidative stress regulation. Quercetin, apigenin, baicalin, luteolin, hesperidin, genistein, proanthocyanidin and eriodictyol were found to be capable of alleviating oxidative stress related to the aforementioned factors. Regarding inflammatory responses, IL-1, IL-6β, TNF-α, SIRT1, NF-κB, and TGF-β1/smad are thought to be essential. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, genistein, proanthocyanidin and eriodictyol were confirmed to influence the above targets. As a result, flavonoids promote podocyte autophagy and inhibit the overactivityof RAAS by suppressing the upstream oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, ultimately alleviating DN. The above results indicate that flavonoids are promising drugs for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, due to deficiencies in the effect of flavonoids on metabolic processes and their lack of structural stability in the body, further research is required to address these issues.