Formononetin Regulates Multiple Oncogenic Signaling Cascades and Enhances Sensitivity to Bortezomib in a Multiple Myeloma Mouse Model.
Biomolecules. 2019 Jul 7 ;9(7). Epub 2019 Jul 7. PMID: 31284669
Here, we determined the anti-neoplastic actions of formononetin (FT) against multiple myeloma (MM) and elucidated its possible mode of action. It was observed that FT enhanced the apoptosis caused by bortezomib (Bor) and mitigated proliferation in MM cells, and these events are regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. We further noted that FT treatment reduced the levels of diverse tumorigenic proteins involved in myeloma progression and survival. Interestingly, we observed that FT also blocked persistent NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and AP-1 activation in myeloma cells. FT suppressed the activation of these oncogenic cascades by affecting a number of signaling molecules involved in their cellular regulation. In addition, FT augmented tumor growth-inhibitory potential of Bor in MM preclinical mouse model. Thus, FT can beemployed with proteasomal inhibitors for myeloma therapy by regulating the activation of diverse oncogenic transcription factors involved in myeloma growth.