Fraxetin and ethyl acetate extract from Lawsonia inermis L. ameliorate oxidative stress in P. berghei infected mice by augmenting antioxidant defence system.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Dec 1 ;36:262-272. Epub 2017 Sep 27. PMID: 29157824
Dhananjay Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Lawsonia inermis L. is a well-documented plant for cosmetic as well as medicinal properties. It is used by local communities in India and Nigeria for the treatment of many parasitic diseases, including malaria.
HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Earlier studies on the plant's antiplasmodial activity were not assigned to any phytochemical with no quality assurance data. In this report, a recent chemically characterized extract and it's major constituent were investigated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity on chloroquine sensitive NF-54 strain. Furtherly, the potent extract and this constituent were assessed in vivo in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The bioactive phytochemical and enriched extract were also monitored against various oxidative stress parameters.
STUDY DESIGN/METHOD: The extract characterization was done by the quantitative analysis of eight phytochemicals using gradient reverse phase HPLC method. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was evaluated on chloroquine sensitive NF-54 strain by the determination of pfLDH activity. In vivo activity of the most potent extract and constituent were evaluated in P. berghei infected mice upon oral administration. The estimation of oxidative stress was done by monitoring various enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters.
RESULTS: The ethyl acetate extract of leaves (IC9.00 ± 0.68 µg/ml) and fraxetin (IC19.21 ± 1.04 µM) were the most effective in in vitro assays therefore selected for in vivo tests. The administration of the ethyl acetate extract of leaves and fraxetin to the infected mice resulted in significant (p < .05) suppression of parasitaemia as evidenced by a 70.44 ± 2.58% to 78.77 ± 3.43% reduction compared to non-infected group. In addition, a two-fold increase in mean survival time, a significant (p < .05) reduction in lipid peroxidation and an elevation in glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase were also observed in treated mice. The post-infection treatment also led to an augmentation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (GST, GR, GPx) with respect to the infected control. A significant(p < .05) elevation in serum Nrf2-antioxidant response element level responsible for the activation of endogenous enzymes was also observed.
CONCLUSION: It was evident from the experiments that ethyl acetate extract of L. inermis and fraxetin were able to suppress the oxidative damage by augmenting endogenous antioxidant system and thus ameliorated the plasmodium infection in mice.