Fucoidan may have value in the prevention of arterial restenosis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Comparative studies on the mechanisms of action of four polysaccharides on arterial restenosis.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2009 ;20(5-6):689-702. PMID: 19323884
INSERM, U 698, Cardiovascular Bio-engineering, X Bichat Hospital, Bât INSERM 13 46 rue H. Huchard, 75877 Paris, Cedex 18, France.
Percutaneous coronary interventions play a major role in the management of patients affected by coronary artery diseases. However, their efficiency is impaired by restenosis, defined as a reduction of the vessel lumen, occurring a few months after the procedure. A low-molecular-weight fraction of fucoidan, a vegetal heparin-like sulphated polysaccharide, was recently shown to greatly reduce in-stent restenosis after angioplasty in rabbits. To better understand the in vivo anti-restenotic effects of this polymer, we used fractions of fucoidan and compared to heparin and dextran of different sizes. We carried out in vitro growth inhibition experiments on vascular smooth muscle cells, performed an in vivo pharmacokinetic study, and locally delivered fluorescently-labeled polysaccharides in rabbit iliac arteries after angioplasty with a non-occlusive catheter. The results indicated that (i) preparation of well-characterized fractions from natural fucoidan is compulsory for in vitro and in vivo studies, (ii) antiproliferative activity of sulphated polysaccharides on cultured smooth muscle cells is not a major predictive factor for the reduction of restenosis in vivo and (iii) pharmacokinetic parameters and binding of low-molecular-weight fucoidan on angioplasty-induced injured vascular walls are important local and general factors controlling its mechanisms of action.