Fucoidan A2 from the Brown Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum Lowers Lipid by Improving Reverse Cholesterol Transport in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.
J Agric Food Chem. 2019 May 22 ;67(20):5782-5791. Epub 2019 May 13. PMID: 31055921
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a physiological process, in which excess peripheral cholesterol is transported to the liver and further excreted into the bile and then feces. Recently, fucoidans are reported to have a lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to investigate whether fucoidan from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum lowers lipid by modulating RCT in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. Our results indicated that fucoidan intervention significantly reduced plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and fat pad index and markedly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. In the liver, fucoidan significantly increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPARγ, liver X receptor (LXR)β, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC)A1, ABCG8, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1), and cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase A1 (CYP7A1) and decreased the triglyceride level and expression of proprotein convertasesubtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and PPARβ but had no effect on LXRα, ABCG1, and ABCG5. In the small intestine, the fucoidan treatment significantly reduced the expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and improved ABCG5 and ABCG8. These results demonstrated that fucoidan can improve lipid transfer from plasma to the liver by activating SR-B1 and LDLR and inactivating PCSK9 and upregulate lipid metabolism by activating PPARα, LXRβ, ABC transporters, and CYP7A1. In the small intestine, this fucoidan can decrease cholesterol absorption and increase cholesterol excretion by activating NPC1L1 and ABCG5 and ABCG8, respectively. In conclusion, fucoidan from A. nodosum may lower lipids by modulating RCT-related protein expression and can be explored as a potential compound for prevention or treatment of hyperlipidemia-related diseases.