Protective effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid against glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Dec;42(12):2009-14. PMID: 15500937
To investigate the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute renal failure, we used a rat model of acute tubular necrosis induced by glycerol. After deprivation of water for 6h, the rats received an injection of 50% glycerol into the muscle of the rear limb at 10 ml/kg body weight. GABA was then administered orally to the rats (100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day) once every 12h for 3 days. The rats with acute renal failure showed arrested body weight gain and an increase of kidney weight, whereas oral administration of GABA attenuated the physiological changes induced by acute renal failure. However, GABA administration had no significant effect on increased urine volume. Oral administration of GABA at a dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 3 days significantly improved the markedly elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine and the reduced creatinine clearance related to progression of renal failure. Moreover, the rats with acute renal failure exhibited high levels of fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) due to alteration of tubule function following injection of glycerol. However, administration of GABA lowered the FE(Na) levels dose-dependently. Furthermore, urine osmolarity was markedly reduced in control rats with acute renal failure as compared with normal rats, whereas it was significantly increased by administration of GABA at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. These results indicate that GABA has potential as a therapeutic agent against the renal damage involved in acute renal failure.