Gadolinium induced effects on mammalian cell motility, adherence and chromatin structure. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Gadolinium induced effects on mammalian cell motility, adherence and chromatin structure.
Apoptosis. 2017 Feb ;22(2):188-199. PMID: 27770270
The toxicity of gadolinium is reduced by chelating agents that render this heavy metal into contrast complexes used for medical magnetic resonance imaging. However, the dissociation of gadolinium chelates is known to generate Gdions, the cellular toxicity of which has not been tested in details. The cytotoxic effects of Gd(III) ions were evaluated by monitoring the proliferation, measuring the cellular motility and following chromatin changes in various cell lines upon Gdtreatment. Measurements applied long-term scanning microscopy and a perfusion platform that replaced the medium with test solutions, bypassed physical contact with the cell culture during experiments, and provided uninterrupted high time-resolution time-lapse photomicrography for an extended period of time. Genotoxicity specific chromatin changes characteristic to Gd(III) were distinguished in human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT), human limbal stem cells (HuLi), colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCO), murine squamous carcinoma (SCC) and Indian muntjac (IM) cell lines. Characteristic features of Gd(III) toxicity were: loss of cellular motility, irreversible attachment of cells to the growth surface and cell death. Injury-specific chromatin changes manifested at micromolar Gdconcentrations as premature chromatin condensation and highly condensed sticky chromatin patches. Gd(III) concentration- and cell type-dependent reduction of normal adherence, as well as premature chromatin condensation confirmed apoptosis. The risk related to the release of toxic Gdions from gadolinium complexes and their effects on mono- and multi-layer cellular barriers have to be reconsidered when these chelated complexes are used as contrasting agents especially in relation to possible blood-brain barrier damages.