Gadolinium as a new emerging contaminant of aquatic environments. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Gadolinium as a new emerging contaminant of aquatic environments.
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2018 06 ;37(6):1523-1534. Epub 2018 Apr 19. PMID: 29473658
Since the 1980s, gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging as stable chelates of the Gdion, without toxic effects. Generally, GBCAs are considered some of the safest contrast agents. However, it has been observed that they can accumulate in patient tissue, bone, and probably brain (causing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with kidney failure or insufficiency and disturbance of calcium homeostasis in the organism). The GBCAs are predominantly removed renally without metabolization. Subsequently, they do not undergo degradation processes in wastewater-treatment plants and are emitted into the aquatic ecosystem. Their occurrence was confirmed in surface waters (up to 1100 ng/L), sediments (up to 90.5 μg/g), and living organisms. Based on a literature review, there is a need to investigate the contamination of different ecosystems and to ascertain the environmental fate of Gd. Long-term ecotoxicological data, degradation, metabolism, bioaccumulation processes, and biochemical effects of the Gd complexes should be explored. These data can be used to assess detailed environmental risks because currently only hotspots with high levels of Gd can be marked as dangerous for aquatic environments according to environmental risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1523-1534. © 2018 SETAC.