Galangin has a role in protecting dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting microglial activation. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Galangin Reduces the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons in an LPS-Evoked Model of Parkinson's Disease in Rats.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Dec 21 ;19(1). Epub 2017 Dec 21. PMID: 29267220
Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra (SN). Neuroinflammation, which is marked by microglial activation, plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of PD. Pro-inflammatory mediators produced by activated microglia could damage DA neurons. Hence, the inhibition of microglial activation may provide a new approach for treating PD. Galangin has been shown to inhibit inflammation in a variety of diseases, but not PD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of galangin and the underlying mechanisms in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced PD models. We first examined the protective effect of galangin in the LPS-induced PD rat model. Specifically, we investigated the effects on motor dysfunction, microglial activation, and the loss of DA neurons. Then, galangin was used to detect the impact on the inflammatory responses and inflammatory signaling pathways in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. The in vivo results showed that galangin dose-dependently attenuates the activation of microglia, the loss of DA neurons, and motor dysfunction. In vitro, galangin markedly inhibited LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) via associating with the phosphorylation of c-JUN N-terminal Kinase (JNK), p38, protein kinase B (AKT), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65. Collectively, the results indicated that galangin has a role in protecting DA neurons by inhibiting microglial activation.